Parkinson's disease (PD) patients experience motor and non-motor symptoms, especially when levodopa (L-dopa) wears off1,2

What happens?

Patients in the OFF state may experience loss of motor control, depression, and anxiety about their future, as well as difficulty with verbal fluency—which can lead to avoidance behavior.1,2

When?

OFF time can occur predictably, such as when a dose of L-dopa wears off, or unpredictably, as the disease progresses.3

How is it controlled?

A common treatment approach is to increase the dose of L-dopa and/or dosage frequency. But, these adjustments may require repeated modification.3,4

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